Transcription Video


1)      RNA polymerase recognizes the start point of a gene on the DNA.  A portion of the helix corresponding to the gene of interest is unwound, and the strands are separated. (occurs in the nucleus.)

2)      RNA polymerase synthesizes the mRNA based on the DNA template strand until the polymerase reaches a “stop sign” signaling the end of the gene.

3)      The mRNA is release and travels to the cytoplasm.  The helix then “zips” back together as the H-bonds reform.




Translation Steps:


  1. During the first step, called ______________________________________ an mRNA copy is made of the DNA.
  2. The mRNA carries the information encoded in the DNA sequence from the


_______________ to the ___________________where the second step takes place.


  1. During this step, called ______________________________, the mRNA strand is read and amino acids linked together into a protein.
  2. The sequence of the mRNA is read by molecules present in the cytoplasm called




  1. The ______________________ link together the amino acids also present in the cytoplasm.
  2. The ribosomes reads the sequence of _____________ nucleotides at a time.  Each


 group of _____________ nucleotides is a single codon.

  1. A ribosome present in the cytoplasm attaches to the ___________________ strand and begins reading the sequence.
  2. The ribosome looks for the start codon composed of the nucleotides __________.

This is where it will begin building the amino acid chain.

  1. The amino acids are transferred to the ribosomes by ______________ molecules. 


__________’s have an anticodon at one end and an amino acid on the other


10.  The anticodon on the tRNA tells which ____________ it will carry to the ribosome.

  1.  The ribosome reads the next codon and another tRNA with a complementary a



  1. The ribosomes promotes a chemical reaction to occur that joins the two ________  together with a peptide bond.
  2. As the ribosome continues down the mRNA strand, the first __________ falls off leaving its amino acid.
  3. The tRNA matching the next codon b9ind to the ribosome and the _________bonds.  This process continues until the ribosome reads the stop codon.  This codon indicates the end of the gene.
  4. The last ________falls off the ribosome and the ribosome falls off the mRNA strand.
  5. An Amino acid chain usually is composed _____________ of amino acids.
  6. The amino acid chain folds up into a 3D structure dictated by the _________________of amino acids.  This unique structure gives each protein its unique function and allows it to do work.