RNA polymerase recognizes the start point of a gene on the DNA. A
portion of the helix corresponding to the gene of interest is unwound, and the
strands are separated. (occurs in the nucleus.)
RNA polymerase synthesizes the mRNA based on the DNA template strand
until the polymerase reaches a “stop sign” signaling the end of the gene.
The mRNA is release and travels to the cytoplasm. The helix then
“zips” back together as the H-bonds reform.
- During the first step, called
______________________________________ an mRNA copy is made of the DNA.
- The mRNA carries the information encoded in the DNA
sequence from the
_______________ to the
___________________where the second step takes place.
- During this step, called
______________________________, the mRNA strand is read and amino acids
linked together into a protein.
- The sequence of the mRNA is read by molecules present
in the cytoplasm called
- The ______________________ link together the amino
acids also present in the cytoplasm.
- The ribosomes reads the sequence of _____________
nucleotides at a time. Each
group of _____________
nucleotides is a single codon.
- A ribosome present in the cytoplasm attaches to the
___________________ strand and begins reading the sequence.
- The ribosome looks for the start codon composed of the
This is where it will begin
building the amino acid chain.
- The amino acids are transferred to the ribosomes by
__________’s have an anticodon at
one end and an amino acid on the other
10. The anticodon on the tRNA
tells which ____________ it will carry to the ribosome.
- The ribosome reads the next codon and another tRNA
with a complementary a
- The ribosomes promotes a chemical reaction to occur
that joins the two ________ together with a peptide bond.
- As the ribosome continues down the mRNA strand, the
first __________ falls off leaving its amino acid.
- The tRNA matching the next codon b9ind to the ribosome
and the _________bonds. This process continues until the ribosome reads the
stop codon. This codon indicates the end of the gene.
- The last ________falls off the ribosome and the
ribosome falls off the mRNA strand.
- An Amino acid chain usually is composed _____________
of amino acids.
- The amino acid chain folds up into a 3D structure
dictated by the _________________of amino acids. This unique structure
gives each protein its unique function and allows it to do work.