Biology Review Sheet For Mid-term Exam

The Exam Will Cover the Following Chapters:  chap 1: 1.1 - 1.3, chap 3: 3.1 - 3.4, chap 4: 4.1, 4.2, 4.4 & 4.6, chap 28: 28.2    &  chap 29: 29.1, 29.6, chap 8:  8.1 - 8.5, 8.7, chap 5: 5.1, 5.2, chap. 6.1 and 6.2


Be sure to study all vocabulary words.  Genetics will not be on this mid-term exam but meiosis (6.1 and 6.2), mitosis and DNA will be on the exam.  You should know all bold face words.


You Should know:


1.  What is Biosphere, Biodiversity, species


2.      All organisms share certain characteristics. Cell, need for energy, response to environment and reproduction and development.

3.      All levels of life have systems of related parts:  system, ecosystem, homeostasis, evolution, adaptation,

4.      Scientific Method – Observation, data, hypothesis, experiment, independent variable, dependent variable, constants, theory

5.      Early studies led to the development of the cell theory.  Discovery of cells (Hooke, Leeuwenhoek, Schleiden, Schwann and Virchow)

6.      What is the Cell Theory?

7.      Prokaryote Cells (no nucleus) Vs Eukaryotic Cells (has nucleus)

8.      Cells have an internal structure.  Cytoskeleton

9.      Several organelles are involved in making and processing proteins (nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Ribosome, Golgi Apparatus, Vesicles (sm. Sacs))

10.  Other organelles have various functions (Mitochondria, Vacuoles, Lysosomes, Centrioles)

11.  Plant Cells have cell walls and cloroplasts.

12.  Cell membranes are composed of two phospholipid layers.(phospholipids, cell membrane)

13.  What is the Fluid Mosaic Model?

14.  What is Selective Permeability?

15.  Chemical Signals are transmitted across the cell membrane.  (receptor)

16.  Diffusion and osmosis are types of passive transport.

17.    What is meant by Concentration gradient.

18.  Types of solutions:  isotonic, hypertonic and hyptonic

19.  What is facilitated diffusion?

20.  The chemical energy used by most cell processes is carried by ATP.  (ADP)

21.  Organisms break down carbon-based molecules to produce ATP.

22.  A few types of organisms do not need sunlight and photosynthesis as a source of energy. (chemosynthesis)

23.  Photosynthestic organism are producers.  (chlorophyll, photosynthesis)

24.  Photosynthesis in plants occurs in chloroplasts.  (thylakoids, light-dependent reactions, light-independent reactions)

25.  know photosynthesis formula (Hint: what to you need for photosynthesis and what do you give off)

26.  Cellular respiration makes ATP by breaking down sugars. (cellular respiration, aerobic, glycolysis, anaerobic)

27.  Cellular respiration is like a mirror image of photosynthesis?  Why? (hint:  look at the formula)

28.  Fermentation allows glycolysis to continue (fermentation, lactic acid)

29.  Why is fermentation and its products are important in several ways?

30.  Conditions within the body must remain within a narrow range.. of temperature, chemical reactions and minerals.

31.  What is homeostasis?  What is negative feedback loop and positive feedback loop?

32.  Nervous System:  The body’s communication systems help maintain homeostasis. (nervous system, central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS)

33.  Endocrine System:  How does it help maintain homeostasis? (endocrine system, stimulus)

34.   The nervous and endocrine systems have different methods and rates of communication.  Explain.

35.  Hormones influence a cell’s activities by entering the cell or binding to its membrane.  (hormones, glands)

36.  Endocrine glands secrete homones that act thoughout the body.  (hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thyroid

37.  How does the hypothalamus interacts with the nervous and endocrine system?

38.  What are the four main stages of the cell cycle? Define each.

39.  Explain how cells divide at different rates

40.  Why is cell size limited?(volume, surface area)

41.  Chromosomes condense at the start of mitosis. (chromosomes, chromatid, centromere)

42.  Mitosis and cytokinesis produce two genetically identical daughter cells.  Explain what occurs in mitosis.

43.  You have body cells and gametes. Somatic cells, gametes.

44.  What is the difference of autosome chromosomes and sex chromosomes. (homologous chromosomes, sex chromosomes, autosomes)

45.  Body cells are diploid; gametes are haploid.  (haploid, diploid)

46. What is meiosis?